The five-day session was described as fraught with tension and disagreement because most of the states were "concerned about the economic implications of migration, looking at the effects of remittances," said Mohammad Zia-ur-Rehman, chief executive of leading Pakistani NGO Awaz Foundation. He said the connection between health and migration was frequently overlooked. In October a high-level dialogue on migration and development will be held that will help lay the foundation for how migration will be incorporated into the post agenda.
CONDIC Regrettably, much of the debate on stem cell research has taken place on emotional grounds, pitting the hope of curing heartrending medical conditions against the deeply held moral convictions of many Americans.
Such arguments frequently ignore or mischaracterize the scientific facts. In August of last year, President Bush approved the use of federal funds to support research on a limited number of existing human embryonic stem cell lines. The decision met with notably mixed reactions. Proponents of embryonic stem cell research argue that restricting federal funding to a limited number of cell lines will hamper the progress of science, while those opposed insist that any use of cells derived from human embryos constitutes a significant breach of moral principles.
It is clear that pressure to expand the limits established by the President will continue. It is equally clear that the ethical positions of those opposed to this research are unlikely to change. Regrettably, much of the debate on this issue has taken place on emotional grounds, pitting the hope of curing heartrending medical conditions against the deeply held moral convictions of many Americans.
To arrive at an informed opinion on human embryonic stem cell research, it is important to have a clear understanding of precisely what embryonic stem cells are, whether embryonic stem cells are likely to be useful for medical treatments, and whether there are viable alternatives to the use of embryonic stem cells in scientific research.
Embryonic development is one of the most fascinating of all biological processes. A newly fertilized egg faces the daunting challenge of not only generating all of the tissues of the mature animal but organizing them into a functionally integrated whole.
Generating a wide range of adult cell types is not an ability unique to embryos. Certain types of tumors called teratomas are extraordinarily adept at generating adult tissues, but unlike embryos, they do so without the benefit of an organizing principle or blueprint. Such tumors rapidly produce skin, bone, muscle, and even hair and teeth, all massed together in a chaotic lump of tissue.
Many of the signals required to induce formation of specialized adult cells must be present in these tumors, but unlike embryos, tumors generate adult cell types in a hopelessly undirected manner.
If a developing embryo is not to end up a mass of disorganized tissues, it must do more than generate adult cell types. Embryos must orchestrate and choreograph an elaborate stage production that gives rise to a functional organism. They must direct intricate cell movements that bring together populations of cells only to separate them again, mold and shape organs through the birth of some cells and the death of others, and build ever more elaborate interacting systems while destroying others that serve only transient, embryonic functions.
Throughout the ceaseless building, moving, and remodeling of embryonic development, new cells with unique characteristics are constantly being generated and integrated into the overall structure of the developing embryo.
Science has only the most rudimentary understanding of the nature of the blueprint that orders embryonic development. Yet, recent research has begun to illuminate both how specific adult cells are made as well as the central role of stem cells in this process.
The term "stem cell" is a general one for any cell that has the ability to divide, generating two progeny or "daughter cells"one of which is destined to become something new and one of which replaces the original stem cell.
In this sense, the term "stem" identifies these cells as the source or origin of other, more specialized cells. There are many stem cell populations in the body at different stages of development.Cloning. In biology, the activity of cloning creates a copy of some biological entity such as a gene, a cell, or perhaps an entire organism.
This article discusses the biological, historical, and moral aspects of cloning mammals. The main area of concentration is the moral dimensions of reproductive cloning, specifically the use of cloning in order to .
What is the best way for infertile couples to have a child? Should research into mechanical reproduction technologies be unlimited? What do we do about frozen embryos that won't be used by the donating couple? We have examined the ethical issues raised by the potential of stem cells derived from donated embryos, embryos created specifically for research purposes, cadaveric .
But research in this field has raised ethical questions, especially at some religious institutions. that stem cells from developing human embryos can regenerate tissue. into offering. Biotechnology options for improving livestock production in developing countries, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa J.E.O.
Rege. Darwinian Theories of Human Nature (This is my summary of a section of a book I often used in university classes: Thirteen Theories of Human Nature, by Stevenson, Haberman, and Wright, Oxford Univ.
benjaminpohle.com is .