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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The 16th and 17th centuries After the Norwegian council tried to obtain some independence for Norway within the union. But, because the bishops dominated the council, they became the losers in the Norwegian parallel to the —36 civil war in Denmark.
As a result, the council was abolished, and the bishops lost all hope for help from Swedenwhich did not want to provoke Denmark and whose king was himself leaning toward Lutheranism.
Olaf Engelbrektsson, the last Norwegian archbishop and head of the council, left Norway in early for the Netherlandstaking with him the shrine of St. In Norwegian political history, the year is a nadir—in CopenhagenNorway was proclaimed a Danish province forever. Norwegian topography and society, however, were very different from those of Denmark, and the hereditary Norwegian crown was viewed as a distinct monarchy.
Thus, Norway was allowed to keep most of its ancient institutions and laws, and new ones had to be given in a special Norwegian version for example, the Norske Lov of Consequently, a Norwegian bourgeoisie became a political factor. After Denmark had a constant fear of Swedish plans to occupy Norway.
Therefore it was important that the Norwegians not feel oppressed by rule from the political centre in Copenhagen. All this may explain the special attention the Danish government gave to Norway.
Most representative of this attitude was Christian IVwho visited Norway often and founded several towns e. He created an army by conscription of peasants and a separate financial administration, but he may have wanted a platform against the Danish nobility to work for absolutism.
There were no signs of secession in the Norwegian population.
When Sehested was deposed inthe financial administration reverted to Copenhagen. He courted the Norwegian peasants and at the same time gave monopolies on trade and timber exports to restricted numbers of merchants.
The 18th century Economic and social conditions The modern frontier of southern Norway, which had been established inwas confirmed by a treaty with Sweden in This treaty also established the frontier farther north to Varanger and assigned the interior of Finnmark Finnmarksvidda to Norway.
The frontier treaty of is remarkable in two ways. And a special supplement to the treaty, called the Lapp codicil, guaranteed free crossing of the new frontier to the nomadic, reindeer-keeping Sami Lappsbased on the seasonal grazing needs of their herds.
The modern frontier in Varanger was established by a convention in between the king of Norway and Sweden and the tsar of Russia. Romanticists of the later 18th century idealized Norwegian rural societywith its free peasants in a wild landscape. Certainly, their situation contrasted favourably with that of the Danish tenants; the landowning farmers in eastern Norway, especially, earned sizable incomes from their timber forests.
Elsewhere in the countryside social conditions were more nearly equal. The Norwegian population consisted almost exclusively of peasants and fishermen; no city or urban agglomeration exceeded 15, inhabitants.
The census of countedinhabitants in Norway andin Denmark. Thomas Malthus was the first demographer to see the exceptional possibilities for population studies in the Scandinavian countries, where civic registers were kept by parsons.
Inthe year following his publication of An Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus went to Norway to confirm his theories about checks on population growth. He found a late marital age, which he ascribed incorrectly to military service and a large servant class.
In fact, early marriages were hindered by poverty and lack of land. Moreover, Norwegian population statistics of the 18th century indicate years of famine and epidemicsas do Swedish and Danish statistics.
Malthus was correct, however, in discerning that demographic evolution in nonindustrialized countries could be studied better in Scandinavia than anywhere else in the world. Thomas Robert Malthus, detail of an engraving after a portrait by J.
Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; photograph, J. Return to Greenland How and why the Norse community in Greenland perished at the end of the Middle Ages is an unsolved and fascinating problem.
In the beginning of the 18th century there still was hope of finding Norse descendants among the Eskimo in Greenland.
Two factors are visible in this activity. First, the Pietist movement, which had considerable influence in Denmark, demanded religious conversion and stressed an obligation to bring the gospel to the heathens.
A Ministry of Missions, founded insupported Egede in Greenland as it supported missionary activity among the Sami in northern Norway and the Indians at Tranquebar on the Coromandel Coast of southern India.Michael Volle, Franz [Vienna] Schubert, Ulrich Eisenlohr, Sjon Scott - Schwanengesang - benjaminpohle.com Music.
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