To download a quick reference to the types of evidence outlined in this article click on:
Section index Evaluating your evidence In Module 2, you were introduced to strategies for evaluating the reliability and credibility of the evidence you are gathering. In this unit, you will see how to select the type of evidence that best lends weight and credibility to your arguments.
The following table sets out the types of evidence which can be used in support of written arguments. Some types of evidence are highly valued in academic writing and others should be avoided. Read the comments in the table for our comments on the value of the various types of evidence.
Type of evidence Value Expert evidence Evidence from reputable sources, usually academics, practitioners or researchers in organisations acknowledged by the field to be leaders in their area of study Expert evidence is considered to be high quality evidence.
It forms the backbone of most academic writing. Corroborative evidence Evidence which is supported by other research. Evidence from multiple sources is more convincing than further evidence from the same source.
Corroborative evidence is highly valued in academic writing provided that the sources of the corroboration are themselves reputable. Contradictory evidence Evidence which qualifies or does not support the position you have taken your thesis.
Contradictory evidence may come from highly expert sources within the field. It cannot be ignored. It is usually acknowledged within the structure of an individual argument, but its significance is downplayed in relation to the supporting evidence.
To see how to use language that downplays evidence, review Module 2, Unit 4, Strategy 4: Using concessive clauses Evidence from related fields Evidence which comes from fields other than the primary field, eg language development may range over the fields of linguistics, neurology, psychology, sociology, etc Evidence from related fields is usually highly valued in academic writing provided that the primary field itself recognises the significance of contributions from these fields.
It would not be advisable, however, to rely on this type of evidence where evidence from the primary field is scarce or lacking. Common knowledge Knowledge universally acknowledged, and so not in need of supporting evidence from sources.
Common knowledge is an acceptable part of all academic writing. However, the purpose of most academic research and writing is to explore what is not common knowledge.
Its place is therefore limited. Too much common knowledge will make a piece of writing appear under-researched and trite.
Anecdotal evidence Verbal or written evidence which comes from third parties or hearsay rather than informed and controlled research.
Anecdotal evidence is rarely highly valued in academic writing. Where it is used, it is usually used to further support something which has already been established by reference to expert sources, or in the complete absence of evidence from expert sources.
It is usually openly acknowledged: However, in some disciplines, this could be an important part of the research.Provide evidence to back up what you are saying.
Support your arguments with facts and reasoning. Do not simply list facts, incorporate these as examples supporting your position, but at the same time make your point as succinctly as possible.
The essay should be concise. Make your point and conclude your essay. Essay Structure Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. Because essays are essentially linear—they offer one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader.
It will be harder to find discussion about acceptable types of evidence in, say, literature or composition books or journals, because they focus on how to create or interpret the content of a writing, not WHAT that content should be.
Dec 13, · The Four Types of Evidence. Updated on December 13, gypsumgirl. more. Contact Author. however, rely on four main types of evidence. As you read further, you will see that some types are more credible than others and "hold more water" so to speak. Persuasive Essay Examples With Counter Arguments.
by Reviews: 1. Types of Evidence in Persuasive/Argument Papers Support your position or thesis with evidence.
Remember that your evidence must appeal to reason. The following are different ways to support your argument: Facts Statistics Quotes Examples 1. Using facts is a powerful means of convincing. Facts can come from your reading, observation, or. Although there are guidelines for constructing certain classic essay types (e.g., comparative analysis), there are no set formula.
Answering Questions: The Parts of an Essay A typical essay contains many different kinds of information, often located in specialized parts or sections.