For Acolytes of Kintecus here is a small list of the program's features: Click the Papers button on the left side to see some! There are many features. Heterogeneous chemistry is also easily modeled.
However, the law of mass action is valid only for concerted one-step reactions that proceed through a single transition state and is not valid in general because rate equations do not, in general, follow the stoichiometry of the reaction as Guldberg and Waage had proposed see, for example, nucleophilic aliphatic substitution by SN1 or reaction of hydrogen and bromine to form hydrogen bromide.
Equality of forward and backward reaction rates, however, is a necessary condition for chemical equilibrium, though it is not sufficient to explain why equilibrium occurs. Despite the failure of this derivation, the equilibrium constant for a reaction is indeed a constant, independent of the activities of the various species involved, though it does depend on temperature as observed by the van 't Hoff equation.
Adding a catalyst will affect both the forward reaction and the reverse reaction in the same way and will not have an effect on the equilibrium constant.
The catalyst will speed up both reactions thereby increasing the speed at which equilibrium is reached. This is an example of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria, like the rest of thermodynamics, are statistical phenomena, averages of microscopic behavior.
If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves to partially reverse the change. For example, adding more S from the outside will cause an excess of products, and the system will try to counteract this by increasing the reverse reaction and pushing the equilibrium point backward though the equilibrium constant will stay the same.
If mineral acid is added to the acetic acid mixture, increasing the concentration of hydronium ion, the amount of dissociation must decrease as the reaction is driven to the left in accordance with this principle.
This can also be deduced from the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction:(Click Here for Director's Choice Ideas) Here are just a few ideas that I have collected over time and from the Internet.
Possibly some of these will get you going in the right direction on your project. PLANT ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS 2. Photosynthesis: When life originated on this planet some billion years ago, the first life forms were single celled heterotrophs.
Biochar may be a tool for mine spoil remediation; however, its mechanisms for achieving this goal remain unclear. In this study, Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) biochar was evaluated for its ability to reclaim acidic mine spoils (pH.
Factors That Affect Enzyme Reaction Rate Essay. Lab Report Factors That Affect Enzymes Reaction Rate Name of lab: Effects of temperature, pH, Enzyme Concentration, and Substrate Concentration on Enzymatic Activity Introduction: Enzymes are the most important types of proteins, they act as catalysis (speed up chemical .
Factors That Affect Rate.
There are four main factors that can affect the reaction rate of a chemical reaction: 1. Reactant concentration.
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Increasing the concentration of one or more reactants will often increase the rate of reaction. Chapter 77 - Chemical Processing CHEMICAL INDUSTRY.
L. De Boer* *Adapted from 3rd edition, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. The business of the chemical industry is to change the chemical structure of natural materials in order to derive products of value to other industries or in daily life.